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    Unknown About Walnut Tree DETAIL
    Unknown About ...

    Europe is the choice of wood producers made from walnut wood. So why?This tree has many different categories and imitations. In this article we will discuss the raw material and properties of stock. Today, the number of enthusiasts who attach great importance to the quality and aesthetics of the wooden parts of rifles has gradually increased. The only tree used for rifle butts is walnut. Some native trees were used to an native. For example, when using olive tree, aesthetically positive results were obtained. However, the specific gravity of this tree, which is considerably higher than walnut, had an effect on the total weight of the weapon. Another drawback was that the timber of this tree contained a large number of defects and the productive productivity was low due to discard. Another “weak natif  to walnut was beech wood used in air rifles. In the sixties, the beech tree was also used by the Franchi company on the Cadet model because it reduced the cost by about 30%.    From a technical point of view, although the specific gravity of the beech is high compared to walnut, semi-automatic weapons did not have much problem. But this time, the lack of aesthetic appearance was revealed, because the butts made of this tree, which does not have the slightest vein, were like a flat “wood”. The only tree that can be an native, albeit partially, to European walnut comes from America American producers often use two types of wood. Black walnut called” Black “and light colored Walnut called” Claro". Black walnut grows naturally in the central states of America, especially in Kansas, Iowa and Missouri. Claro, which is light colored, is mainly located in California. Even if they cannot be compared with European walnuts in terms of quality, it is a fact that these walnuts are attractive in aesthetic terms. Our national manufacturers do not want to use these trees, especially the butts of superposed rifles. However, due to the trend towards the use of light rifles in users for several years, some manufacturers have begun to use light Claro walnut semi-automatic “light” types. because they can achieve lighter stockings up to 50 grams. Twenty-thirty years after these trees have been cut, a timber called “French walnut is produced, which is almost identical to European walnut with its aesthetics, durability and weight. In search of native exotic trees grown in Africa and Latin America were also tried, but the positive results were not achieved.So A tree that can compete with European walnut in terms of aesthetics, weight and durability has not yet been found.   The  Origine Of The Rifle Butt The European walnut, whose root is based in South-East Asia, grows in relatively warmer countries of the southern hemisphere. Therefore, it is possible to come across this tree in a wide area from Western Europe to India. For the rifle butts, aged and grown tree stumps are preferred. At first, the leading supplier of walnut tree was France. The supplier was in the Balkans when the raw material depleted. But since about 40 years the chief supplier  is Turkey. Eastern Anatolia is a place where small carpenters and engravers have learned and developed this tree. Leading suppliers of weapons manufacturers are located in this region. There are many centuries-old walnut trees growing and developing in the region struggling with climatic conditions. Walnuts grown under heavy and difficult conditions give the best results in terms of aesthetics. Unfortunately, the number of trees available in this region is decreasing. The only geographic areas that can be an native to this region are the Caucasus and Kashmir regions for today. In other words, we are talking about macro-geographical areas within the borders of countries such as Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Pakistan and India. In this case, you can anticipate problems for purchasers, such as establishing business relationships with small manufacturers with different working habits in these countries, dealing with commuting, transportation and logistics challenges. Therefore, it will not be unreasonable to think that all these difficulties will inevitably be reflected in prices. HOW THE TREE IS CUTTING? Since the top quality wood comes out of the root parts of the tree, the first thing to do is to dig around and expose the roots at the point where the tree sticks to the soil, then cut the roots of the appropriate size. The next stage is the most critical and therefore only experienced workers are involved in this phase. It is the slicing and cutting process for obtaining the pieces in the butt profile from the timber. The most important point here is to detect defects in the wood and fine-tune the vessel distribution. CLASSES OF WOOD Aesthetic appearance is the main priority in the classification of butt drafts. Boards with minimum tonal differences between the veins and colors are separated from each other, with significant contrasts and distinct folds between the light and dark veins. As with all aesthetic assessments, the final decision is personal and is decided according to some usual criteria, especially for very high quality products. Usually the commercial rating is divided into six categories, from small to large. Companies that purchase the resulting stock drafts are subject to a number of classification and sorting operations according to their requirements and the type of rifle they will use. Veining Process Of Walnut As the interest and demand for rifles with valuable wooden parts grew steadily and the raw material gradually decreased, the rising prices caused a certain stagnation in the market before the year 2000. Arms manufacturers had difficulty responding to the market and could not control prices. Between 1995 and 2000, an Italian craftsman named Luciano Camaini had an ingenious idea. After a lot of experimentation and practice, he carried out a “veining” process for rifle butts. Firstly, this technique, which is applied only by Beretta with the definition of wood Extra wood,, has spread in a short time and has entered the field of application of many other manufacturers. This method was called Water Transfer Water Technology (TWT). It is necessary to go back a few years to understand the method. This system consists essentially of a three-dimensional application of a film of the desired graphic pattern to the gun surface. First, a protective lacquer is applied to the surface and then a primer is applied. The next stage consists of a real implementation of the predetermined pattern. For this, a special water-soluble film with patterns is used. This film is placed on the water surface of a water-filled container and covered with an activator. Then the object to be applied is immersed in the water, the film melts in the water and the inked patterns that it carries are wrapped around the object. In this way, the final object is applied to the object removed from the water as a final layer of clear varnish and the application is completed.

    The wooden houses of Istanbul DETAIL
    The wooden houses ...

    June Taboroff JUNE TABOROFF is an American architectural historian who deals with the problems of conservation of historic monuments and sites. These houses are falling into decay and the tendency is to replace them with concrete buildings. A unique form of vernacular architecture is being lost that ought to be renovated and preserved. A street scene in the Zeyrek quarter of Istanbul, one of the poorer parts of the city, where much of the traditional wooden architecture c an he found. The women sitting outside their houses are doing needlework. Although this building is in a relatively poor state of repair, there are many in worse condition and yet all the wooden buildings are inhabited Istanbul's last wooden houses are collapsing and with them a whole architectural type and culture is vanishing. These wooden houses, examples of ingenuity and taste, are integral to the fabric of the historic city of Istanbul and are key elements in preserving its townscape. The traditional city view-narrow streets lined with bay-windowed wooden houses overlooking the garland of waters surrounding the city - is fast becoming a memory. Istanbul, the only city in the world which stands upon two continents, stretches from the Thracian plain in the west to Asia in the east. Over five million inhabitants live in the city. Its ancient core, Stamboul, dating from at least the 7th century BC, is located at the southeastern tip of Europe. Although some may argue that it is energy misplaced to save the wooden houses of Istanbul, considering the host of urban ills facing the city, these structures are of irreplaceable significance. They are the only remaining examples of Istanbul's own domestic architecture, and represent building forms known from at least the 16th century. They are thus direct links with the Turkish past. Furthermore, the number of wooden houses available for preservation represents only a very small percentage of the original wooden building stock and requires a relatively modest investment. There is an understandable tendency for Third World countries to lose sight of the need to preserve their own physical past because it is often, to contemporary eyes, modest or perhaps crumbling. It is notable that at the Fourth Symposium of the International Committee for the Conservation of Buildings and Structures in Wood, held in June 1982 in Ottawa and Quebec. Canada, this subject was addressed in the recommendations. The wooden houses of Istanbul, built in large part in the second half of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century, are of two major types: the konak and the row house. The konak, the older building form, is a single family town house surrounded by a garden. These gardens form an essential part of the spatial and architectural programme. Graced with fountains and pergolas, they function as outdoor rooms in temperate weather. The konak has reception rooms on the ground floor and private living-quarters on the upper floors. An attic floor, built like a pavilion, surmounts the spacious living areas. The more modest row or terrace-type houses developed at the end of the 19th century when the large konak building lots were divided up. Owing to their later construction date they tend to be in a somewhat better state of conservation than the konaks. There are three basic ground plans, all with a stairwell flanked by a single room or pair of rooms. Almost without exception the row houses have a small garden concealed behind high walls and planted with trees and flowers, often with a well. Early photographs and city views of Istanbul reveal a city dense with green spaces. Building techniques. The majority of wooden houses are built on stone foundations. A timber skeletal frame support of two or three storeys topped by a terrace-like roof surface is characteristic of both konak and row houses. In Istanbul narrow planks are nailed to the outside surfaces, while the inside walls are coated with lime plaster. This is a particularly rapid and economical building method allowing quick construction by small teams. In other parts of Turkey and the Balkans the interstitial area of the skeletal frame may be filled by rubble masonry, stone or brick. In Bursa, brick and mortar are used with a wooden frame to approximate half-timber buildings, similar to the German Fachwerk house. The Turkish system is also very similar to the American balloon or basket frame which first appeared in the United States in Chicago in 1833 and within 20 years prevailed in the urban American West. A shoeblack sits in from of a well-maintained wooden house. Few are found in such condition The building method, made possible by advances in nail manufacturing and d in response to a need for quick construction, consists of a light frame held together by nails instead of the older system of heavy beams joined by mortise, tenon and pegs. In this newer construction system, wall-plates, studs, floor joists and rafters were all made of thin sawn timbers nailed together in such a way that every strain went in the direction of the fibre of the wood. The timbers formed a cage to which board or clapboard was then affixed. In Istanbul the favoured wood is pine, with beech used for interior woodwork. In the more refined and luxurious houses, interiors were elaborately fitted with cabinets, wall shelves and decorative ceilings and floors. The lumber used in Istanbul houses came from nearby forests, either on the Asiatic side or the European side. The Caspian coast is especially rich in forests. Lumber was then shipped to the harbour of Istanbul for unloading and distribution. The relatively simple balloon-frame construction methods contrast with the fanciful decorative features of the houses. The facades are dressed with an enormous variety of carved and cut-out woodwork lending an air of gaiety and whimsy to the houses. A profusion of design motifs decorate door - and window-frames, cornices, corbels under bay windows and at corners. Such features expressed the owner's own fantasies and tastes. The tradition of wood-carving and woodwork in Turkey is rich and sophisticated. A series of beautifully carved and inlaid wooden doors' dating from the 13th century onward, marked the entrance to mosques and palaces. During the later Ottoman period this originally royal art-form found a place in the domestic architecture of the wealthy citizens of Istanbul. In a more simple manner it was also used in modest houses. The placement and form of windows are other distinguishing features of Istanbul's wooden houses. Windows are numerous and generous in size, generally concentrated in the upper two storeys. Their positioning reflects the wish for fine views of the city's waterways as well as the joint requirements of privacy and sociability. The urban setting. The problems confronting the historic city of Istanbul are chronic: the need to preserve a large number of Byzantine and Otto man monuments, an uncontrolled rural migration and lack of funds for rehabilitation. Although the major historic monuments are not in imminent danger, the areas surrounding them are. This is particularly the case in areas where the traditional wooden houses still exist. Very little pre-20th century domestic architecture remains in Istanbul. It is estimated that only one percent of the original 150000 wooden houses are still standing. Suleymaniye and Zeyrek. The highest concentration of wooden houses is found in two districts, Suleymaniye and Zeyrek. The overcrowded, crumbling Suleymaniye district - bordered by Ataturk Boulevard, the Suleymaniye mosque complex and the University of Istanbul - mixes the textile traders, market, the wholesale fruit and vegetable market, small industries and warehouses with late 19th-century row houses. Most of these are falling apart, with no kitchen and bathroom facilities, although they have electricity and running water. The present sewerage system dates from about 1910. There are often four or five people renting one room. Zeyrek is the first landing point in Istanbul for immigrants from Anatolia. Located on the slopes of the Golden Horn, west and above Ataturk Boulevard near the Byzantine monastery complex of the Pantocrator, it is here that immigrants find their first home, often with relatives from their own village. Their stay in these illequipped wooden row houses and konaks is temporary: after finding a job they move to the newer residential areas which have sprung up on the fringes of Istanbul, called gecekendus. The waves of immigrants passing through Zeyrek a situation of neglect and disrepair. The most necessary repairs remain undone as the house is rented again and again to new tenants by unconcerned owners. Holes soon appear in the roof, grave moisture damage is suffered by the structure and the house collapses. Although public awareness of the artistic and historic value of these houses has increased, the rate of disappearance still continues at an exponential rate. Both accident and plan have played a role in the building of wooden houses in Istanbul. Devastating fires which sweep through whole areas leaving countless inhabitants injured and homeless have marked the history of Istanbul. These fires resulted in continual rebuilding. To combat the danger of fire, a decisive law was enacted in the 1920s forbidding further building in wood without adequate free spaces between houses. This put an end to building in wood in the densely populated city centre. The political and economic fortunes of Istanbul also determined the fate of the wooden houses. In the course of the 19th century, Istanbul became the manufacturing centre of Turkey. Industrial buildings filled the upper reaches of the Golden Horn, Suleymaniye and the bazaar. An influx of low-income workers brought rapid population growth. The old Ottoman residential districts changed extensively. The modernization of Istanbul, initiated in the second half of the 20th century under the guidance of French city planners, dealt a devastating blow to the already stressed situation of the historic centre. Only by chance have concentrations of wooden houses been spared. Causes of deterioration. As is often the case, a complex of factors converge to threaten the continued existence of a traditional building stock. In Istanbul many of the wooden houses are infested by termites which cause eventual deterioration of the structure. Moisture damage is also a serious problem in the conservation of these houses. But perhaps the single most significant factor in the disintegration of the wooden houses is the lack of maintenance. Particular social and economic conditions an especially unfavourable climate which works against the conservation of this vernacular architecture. Migrants from eastern Turkey find jobs as carriers, pedlars of fruit and vegetables and seasonal labourers in the vicinity of the markets in the historic peninsula. An ever-changing group of single workers rent rooms in old houses. The boarding-houses become shabby and begin to deteriorate due to lack of care and overcrowding. Families tend to move from the area and a whole downward cycle is set in motion. For some owners who want to rid themselves of their old wooden houses in order to construct a modern apartment building, renting to workers without families becomes a conscious method of demolition. Characteristic ornate windows-frames. The wood-carving skills of the last century that made this type of ornamentation possible still exist in Turkey and are available for restoration efforts This carved wooden balcony has characteristic Turkish architectural motifs, row of stalactite forms across the front and a geometric interlace underneath Tympanums at the tops of buildings are frequently decorated with elegantly carved wooden mouldings A principal aspect of the problem of conservation of wooden houses is one of cultural discontinuity which makes the public in large measure indifferent to the past and to a relatively abstract heritage which consists, in the eyes of the population, of monuments and sites. According to Dogan Kuban, one of the most respected Turkish architects, if the existence of an attitude of ambivalence to the past and the practical demands of daily life are taken into account, one cannot be surprised by the spectacle of the rapid disappearance of all the old areas of Istanbul together with their wooden houses. What makes conservation at times impossible in Istanbul, contends Kuban, is the feeling of alienation toward the material culture of the recent past. It is therefore necessary to persuade the population that these dwellings must not be regarded as slums, but as representative of an irreplaceable heritage worthy of preservation. This situation also implies another obstacle: the discontinuity of construction techniques. In Istanbul until the 1920s wood was the basic building material for domestic architecture. The old techniques of wood construction became unacceptable, not only in a practical sense but also for reasons of a cultural value system. Although it can be argued that the maintenance of wooden buildings and the replacement of damaged elements are expensive, it is largely a matter of cultural attitude that determines the survival of these wooden houses. The replacement of wood by concrete in Istanbul is not only for reasons of safety or economy, but also for the wealth and solid standing symbolized by concrete. Programmes for conservation. Unesco, the universities of Zurich and Darmstadt and the German Archaeological Institute of Istanbul have all conducted studies aimed at conserving the historic peninsula. To date, surveys of the extant wooden houses in the Suleymaniye and Zeyrek districts have been completed. They consist of detailed drawings of each house, including plan and elevation drawings. The names of the owners have been gathered from the National Office of Registration and sociological interviews with the inhabitants conducted. Proposals for pedestrian spaces and traffic thoroughfares have been drafted. Although the first of these research projects began in 1977, they have not yet been implemented. * * * Despite the dedicated and sustained efforts of the Unesco commission and the German Archaeological Institute, the fate of the wooden houses of Istanbul is grim. The necessary studies and inventories have been carried out in proper fashion but actual conservation and rehabilitation measures have neither been undertaken, nor even planned. Fundamentally the ultimate decision is a financial one, since the legal and administrative means to halt the process of demolition are still limited. The designation of Suleymaniye and Zeyrek as protected zones, according to the new historic preservation law, signals legal progress, but has not been met by adequate financial support or planning. The wooden houses of Istanbul, precious remnants of the life of the old city, will soon be extinct unless active safeguarding initiatives are taken.

    Turkish Wood Culture and Timber Houses DETAIL
    Turkish Wood ...

      Cut stone, marble and brick are the building blocks for monumental religious architecture, city walls and fortifications, palaces and great civic buildings, and provide a powerful visual link to the past. There is, however, also a strong tradition of architecture which makes use of one of a far more practical and curiously durable material, and one which endows those same urban centres with access to a different, more intimate history. That material is wood. Turkey possesses an extraordinarily long and well-documented history of building with wood. The tomb of King Midas, ruler of the iron age kingdom of Phrygia, is made from juniper logs and sealed with pine planks. It is located in the centre of a 40 metre high funereal mound near the modern city of Polatli (ancient Gordiom) and is reckoned to be the oldest intact wooden structure in the world. Some 2700 years later, in 1898, came the construction of the world’s largest pure wood structure on the Istanbul island of Büyükada. It is a now disused orphanage and measures an astonishing 1025 metres by 25-35 metres and is 21 metres high. It was intended as a hotel before being sold to a Greek philanthropist after if failed to receive permission to open. The Sultan donated a daily ration of meat for the orphans and the royal ovens supplied bread. The sheer variety of construction is enormous, from the Unesco-listed thirteenth century Great Mosque at Sivrihisar with its timber ceiling and internal wooden pillars, to the early twentieth century pavilion on the Asian side of Istanbul’s Bosphorus which served as the summer residence and painting studio of Abdülmecid , the Ottoman heir presumptive and last Caliph, forced into exile in 1924. The last great Ottoman Sultan, Abdülhamid II, was himself an accomplished carpenter and his palace workshop produced in only three weeks an elegant pre-fabricated bungalow which was used as a pavilion for Kaiser Wilhelm when he toured the silk carpet factories in Hereke in 1894. Most rightly associate wood not with these royal structures but the more modest vernacular houses, the setting for everyday life in the Ottoman Empire. Preserving the fabric of those few neighbourhoods where there are still wooden buildings has long been a priority in Turkey and there is an extensive raft of legislation to protect listed historical buildings. Construction in wood represents not just an important aesthetic which helped define Ottoman urban life, but embodies a great deal of practical knowledge that in a country with Turkey’s seismic history, could actually promote both safer and more environmentally sensitive housing. Most agree more could be done to find a better balance between the protection of properties and the encouragement of sympathetic renovation. Too many buildings – like the orphanage in Büyükada – are simply left to decay. At issue, argues a new generation of “timber activists” is not just the salvaging of pretty postcard views, but the preservation of skills and knowledge that can actually save lives. One noticeable property of timber houses is that they survive earthquakes. Wood houses are far more durable than popular belief. Istanbul was a city plagued by fire in the nineteenth centuries, but this was not because the houses were made of wood but because they were close together. Wood houses don't burn like kindling - the structure normally stands for an hour and a half. Steel frame buildings collapse much quicker. The other myth is that wood is a finite material and to use it for construction is to exhaust a natural resource. The reality is that demand s rational husbandry. One of the UN's environmentalist slogans is "Cut trees to save the forests". In societies where people use more wood, the forest size increases. Wood was clearly the material of choice before the First World War in Turkey, its popularity only affected by cost. Even the substantial merchant homes in the picturesque town of Safronbolu are half-timber (himis) with the space between wood supports in-filled with stone rubble and then covered in a lime plaster. Drawings from the seventeenth century show similar houses in Istanbul. The lime-plastered rubble facades were vulnerable to salt and sea air and the so the sea-side mansions (yali) along Istanbul’s Bosphorus were among the first houses to use timber cladding. In some cases the land side of the house remained in the same half timber side as a cost-cutting measure. The oldest existing house on the Bosphorus, the Amcazade Huseyn Pasa Yali built in 1698, clearly sported the affluence of its proprietor – a member of the Köprülü family, by being entirely covered in wooden planks. As wood was used more liberally, wood clad town houses took a variety of forms with some interiors based on traditional Anatolian floor plans, others more directly imitative of Western European homes. Elements thought of as being typical of Ottoman include the taslik – or an entrance floor paved with stone, the oda – literally “room” but a multi-purpose room often with an elevated platform that was used as a seating area by day and a place to lay sleeping mattresses by night. Turkish houses typically contained reception rooms where men could receive guests (selamlik) and the private quarters of the house (haremlik). These quarters could be very distinct -- to the extent of being virtually separate dwellings with distinct entrances -- or a division of space no more complex than a European house where a “best parlour” is reserved for the outside world and the sleeping quarters generally out of bounds to non-family. Those dwellings drawing from a more rural tradition in a sense turned their back on the street with featureless facades. Instead they focused on an inner courtyard or an elevated terrace floor (hayat). The radical contrast to this were western inspired mansions with imposing facades that openly indulged in a variety of borrowed styles from neo-classical pillars and pediments to art noveau fretwork along balustrades and jalousies. A tour of the summer houses on the island of Büyükada remains the best place to see the inventiveness of wood constructions with large ornate houses of all kinds including those with belvederes in the form of neo-baroque turrets. Demand for housing in Istanbul itself rose during the nineteenth century due to the influx of refugee populations. Wood houses reflected this demand and more densely populated neighbourhoods arose of much smaller dwellings. A popular element of houses from this period were the bay extensions (cumba) or cantilevered overhangs in which the house itself appeared to stretch out in search of a better view. These not only provided extra space for upper storey rooms but shelter and shade for the pedestrians below. Istanbul again possesses two neighbourhoods which provide an opportunity to see these more dense urban centres of wood housing - that around the Suleymania Mosque and Zeyrek further down the Golden Horn. Both areas are listed on the UNESCO prestigious World Heritage List. Projects exist to rejuvenate these neighbourhoods but progress has been slow. The neighbourhoods of nineteenth and early twentieth century wooden houses are evaporating as is the very craft that went into their creation. Even the Turkish word for “joiner”-- “dulger” -- is disappearing from the language. This has happened all over the last seventy years. Construction in wood is no longer on the university curriculum. Those who promote the use of wood hope their efforts will encourage people not just to cherish old buildings but to use the knowledge those buildings encapsulate to new traditions. by Andrew Finkel